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A-F | G-K | L-P | Q-U | V-Z

A – F

alternate (all' ter net)
leaf arrangement alternating along a stem; 1 leaf at a node
anther (an' thur)
pollen-bearing part of the stamen
awn
either a hair- or bristle-like appendage on a larger structure, or in the case of the Asteraceae, a stiff needle-like element of the pappus
basal (bas' ul)
when leaves are at base of plant
berry
technically, a simple fruit in which the entire pericarp is fleshy, except the epicarp; for example, banana, tomato, grape and currant
blade
especially a leaf of grass or the broad portion of a leaf as distinct from the petiole; the main organ of photosynthesis and transpiration in higher plants
bunch grass
the general name for perennial grass species that tend to grow in discrete tufts or clumps rather than in sod-like carpets
calcareous (kal ka' ree uhs)
calcium-rich soil
calyx (kay' liks)
the outer whorl of the flower, sepals
capsule
a dry, or occasionally leathery, dehiscent fruit made of two or more cells
cespitose (ses' pee tohs)
growing in dense, matlike clumps without creeping stems, as moss, grass, etc.
chlorophyll (klor' uh fil)
the green pigment of the plant that traps light for photosynthesis
corolla (kor' oh luh)
the inner whorl of the flower, petals
corymb (kor' imb)
flat-topped cluster of flowers, which begin blooming at the edge and proceed toward the center
crenate (kree' nayt)
margins with blunt teeth
culm (kulm)
jointed stem of various grasses, usually hollow
deciduous (dee sid' you us)
leaves fall after completion of normal function, usually referring to those that fall from the plant before winter; also perennial plants that die back before winter
decumbent (de kum' bent)
on the ground and rising at the tip, as some stems
dehiscent
bursting open when mature, as with a pod or capsule releasing seeds or anther releasing pollen
disk flowers
the central portion of the flowering head of many in the aster family
drupe
a fleshy, usually one-seeded indehiscent fruit with seed enclosed in a stony endocarp; exaples include peach, cherry and olive
druplet
a small drupe, especially as applied to the individual components of aggregate fruits such as blackberries and raspberries, which consist of manyseeds, each surrounded by its own fleshy layer; also drupel
ecotype (e' koh type)
a group, or race, within a species, having unique physical characteristics genetically adapted to particular environmental conditions
elliptic (ee' lip tik)
oval, broadest in the middle
endocarp
in fruits whose pericarp consists of dissimilar layers, the innermost layer; it may be hard and stony (such as the pit of a plum or peach), membranous (as the core of an apple), or fleshy (such as the pulp of an orange)
epicarp

the outer skin of fruits

evergreen

having foliage that remains green all year

forb

an herb other than grass

frond

the leaf of ferns

G – K

hemi parasitic (him' ee par' uh sit ik)

dependent on the host for water and minerals

indehiscent

not popping or splitting open spontaneously when mature

inflorescence (in' floor ess ins)

the arrangement of flowers on the plant

L – P

lanceolate (lan' see oh late)

lance-shaped, longer than wide and broadest near the base

leaflet

one segment of a compound leaf

ligule (lig' yule)
a strap-shaped corolla in the flowers of certain composite plants; a thin membrane attached to a leaf of grass at the point where the blade meets the leaf sheath
lobe
blade divided into parts separated by sinuses
mesic (mee' zik)
moderately moist but well drained
mottled
spotted, alternating between light green and dark green
nodding
hanging downward
node
point on a stem where leaves are attached
nut
the indehiscent fruit of certain trees and shrubs that have the seed enclosed in a bony, woody or leathery covering; specifically, a hard, dry, one-celled and one-seeded fruit, such as the nuts of the hazel, beech, oak and chestnut
oblanceolate (ob lan' see oh late)
lance-shaped, broadest above the middle
obligate (ob' lih git)
able to exist or survive only in a particular environment or by assuming a particular role
opposite
two leaves at a node that are opposite each other
ovary (oh' ver ee)
enlarged, rounded, usually basal, ovule(s)-bearing part of a pistil, ultimately becoming the fruit
ovule (ov' youl)
a protective structure in which the female reproductive cell develops, fertilization occurs, and seeds develop; contained within the ovary
palmate (palm ate')
veins, lobes or leaflets in an arrangement looking like the outstreached fingers on a hand
panicle (pan' ih kul)
a branched indeterminate inflorescence in which the branches are racemes, so that each flower has its own stalk (called a pedicel) attached to the branch; examples woul be oats and sorghum
pappus (pap' us)
an appendage or tuft of appendages that crowns the ovary or fruit in various seed plants and functions in dispersal of the fruit
perennial (per in' ee ul)
having a life cycle of more than two years: said esp. of herbaceous plants that produce flowers and seed from the same root structure year after year
pericarp
the wall of a fruit that is fleshy, as in berries or hard, as in nuts
petal
one segment of the corolla
petiole (pet' ee ohl)
leaf stalk
pinnae (pin' ee)
the first division of a pinnately compound leaflet in ferns
pinnate (pin ate')
veins, lobes or leaflets arising at multiple points along a common axis, like a feather
pistil (pis' tul)
female part of the flower, consisting of the stigma, style and ovary
pod
a dry dehiscent fruit or seed vessel that is more or less elongated and cylindrical or flattened, as of the pea, bean or catalpa
pollen (pol' en)
container for the male reproductive cell
pome
the typical fruit of species of Pyrus, Crataegus and certain other members of the rose family; it consists of a fleshy layer surrounding a core containing (usually) five seeds within a papery capsule
pubescent (pewb ess' int)
covered with soft hairs

Q – U

raceme (ray seem')
long inflorescence with individual flowers borne on short, unbranched side stalks off a larger central stalks, as in the lily of the valley
rhizomatous (ri zoh may' shus)
having, resembling or being a rhizome
rhizome (ri' zohm)
a creeping stem lying, usually horizontally, at or under the surface of the soil and differing from a root in having scale leaves, bearing leaves or aerial shoots near its tips, and producing roots from its undersurface
rosette
a circular cluster of leaves at or near ground level
seed
the fertilized and matured ovule of a flowering plant; it contains an embryonic plant and, when placed under favorable circumstances develops into an individual similar to the one that produced it
sepal (seep' ul)
a segment of the calyx, a part of the outer floral envelope
serrate (ser' ate)
saw-toothed margins
sessile (ses' ul)
attached directly to the stem without a petiole
spathe (spayth)
a large, leaflike part or pair of such parts enclosing a flower cluster
spike
an unbranched, indeterminate inflorescence with sessile flowers
sporangia (spor' an gee uh)
case containing spores, reproduction mechanism of ferns
stamen (stay' men)
the male, pollen-bearing organ, of the flower
stigma
the sticky surface at the tip of the style to which pollen grains attach
stolon (stoh' lun)
a creeping stem that lies on or above the soil surface and bears foliage leaves, as in the strawberry or creeping bent grass
stoloniferous (stoh lun if' er us)
bearing or forming stolons
stone fruit
a fruit with a hard endocarp enveloped in pulp, as the peach, cherry and plum; a drupe or drupelet
style
part of the pistil that separates the stigma from the ovary
symbiotic relationship (sim' bee ot ik)
two or more individuals of different species living in intimate association
tepal (tee' pul)
a single flower petal; used when the two flower envelopes, corolla and calyx are indistinguishable
ternately compound (ter nate' lee)
compound leaf that is divided three times
umbel (um' bul)
flat-topped or rounded flower cluster in which the individual flower stalks emerge from the same point on the stem, like the ribs of an umbrella

V – Z

wetland
an area of land consisting of soil that is saturated with moisture, such as a swamp, marsh, or bog
whorl
three or more leaves at a node
xeric (zer' ik)
of, characterized by, or adapted to an extremely dry habitat
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